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EvolutionLine, SportLine, EndeavourLine, ProfessionalLine, LuxuryTenderLine - 72 Pages

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Catalogue excerpts

At SAACKE we combine series production and customised engineering to design and manufacture combustion plants to customer specifications for industrial and marine applications. SAACKE products satisfy not only the demands of the industry but strict ecological standards as well. The SAACKE Group encompasses affiliates, production facilities, after-sales service centres and associated companies worldwide. Day by day, about a thousand employees devote themselves to making the best possible use of the world's energy and protecting our environment in the process.

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This SAACKE Pocket Formula Guide is a collection of essential formulas, calculation bases and standards from the field of combustion engineering. It cannot substitute individual,customer-specific calculations - but it does offer a basic tool for making rough calculations and collecting the key data to start with. The current issue has been reviewed thoroughly and new material has been added. We welcome any suggestions for improving the quality of our Pocket Formula Guide. Please feel free to contact us at the address on the back. Although we have checked the content carefully at SAACKE, it is...

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1. General Formulae and Conversions    Page 1.4    Air Pressure, Density and Temperature    10 1.5    Conversion Table of Anglo-American Units    11 1.6.1    Direct Current and Non-Inductive Alternating or Three-Phase Current    12 1.6.2    Alternating and Three-Phase Current with Inductive Load    13 1.6.3    Star Delta Connection for Three-Phase 1.6.4    Star Delta Connection of a 2. Capacities, Efficiency Rates, Steam Table 2.2    Boiler Output, Burner Output and Fuel Consumptions 2.5    Determination of the Boiler Efficiency Rate from the Flue Gas Measurements    19 2.6    Parameters of Water...

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3. Fuels, Combustion Calculation    Page 3.2    Heating Values of Selected Fuels    25 3.7    Characteristics of Various Utility Gases    29 3.8    Properties of Important Organic Compounds    31 3.10    Flue Gas Recirculation Rate (FGR)    34 3.10.1 Flue Gas Recirculation Rate in Natural Gas Operation    35 3.10.2 Flue Gas Recirculation Rate in Oil Operation    36 3.11    Dry / wet O2 content in the Flue Gas    37 3.12    Theoretical Adiabatic Flame Temperature    38 5.1.3 Influence of Air Density and Air Temperature on the Fan Power    42 5.2    Output Series for Electric Motors    42 5.3    Protection...

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6. Emissions, Limits for Flue Gas and Noise 6.1    Emissions Limits for Firing Plants    51 6.2    Continuous Monitoring acc. to German "TA Luft" 52 6.3 Estimation of the Solid Content in the Flue Gas of Liquid Fuels    52 6.4    Estimation of the SOx Content in the Flue Gas 52 6.5.1 Equation for Correction to the O2 Reference Value    53 6.5.2 Factors for Conversion from ppm to mg/m    54 6.5.3 Correction of the Influence of the Temperature and Humidity of the Combustion Air on the NOx Emissions    54 6.5.4 Correction of the Influence of the Nitrogen Content in the Oil on the NOx Emissions    54 6.6...

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1 General Formulae and Conversions

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1.2 Conversion Formulae 1.2.1 Heating Values 1 Also applies for heating values given per normal cubic meter. 1.2.2 Temperatures Conversion of temperature scales to Celsius (°C) and Fahrenheit (°F) °C ß

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psi = pound-force per square inch BTU = British Thermal Unit 1 PSh = 1 hph (metric) = 0.986 hph (mechanical)

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1.4 Air Pressure, Density and Temperature (Standard Atmosphere) Based on the International Altitude Formula

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1.6 Electric Power 1.6.1 Direct Current and Non-Inductive Alternating or Three-Phase Current Direct or alternating current Power with direct or alternating current Three-phase current Power with three-phase current P = power U = voltage (line-to-line voltage) I = amperage R = resistance 1. Example: light bulb, U = 6 V; I = 5 A; P = ?; R = ? P = U · I = 6 V · 5 A = 30 W R = U = 6 V = 1.2 Ω I 5A 2. Example: annealing Furnace, three-phase current, U = 400 V; P = 12 kW; I = ? I = P = 12,000 W = 17.3 A √ 3 · U √ 3 · 400 V Calculation of the star delta connection

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1.6.2 Alternating and Three-Phase Current with Inductive Load Alternating current Active power with three-phase current P = V3 ■ U ■ I ■ cos^ P = active power U = voltage (line-to-line voltage) I = amperage cos^ = power factor n = motor efficiency Psh    = mechanical power of the motor (shaft power) Example: three-phase motor, U = 400 V; I = 21.5 A; cos^ = 0.85; P = ? P = V3 ■ U ■ I ■ cos^ = 1.732 ■ 400 V ■ 21.5 A ■ 0.85 = 12,660 W h 12.7 kW The mechanical power delivered by the motor (shaft power) is less than the active power. Example: Psh = P ■ n n = 87 %; P = 12.7 kW Psh = 12.7 kW ■ 0.87 =...

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Delta connection A Line-to-line current I = V3 ■ Iph Line-to-line voltage U = Uph Star or delta connection Phase current Iph - Rph    = phase resistance P = active power cos^ = power factor with an inductive load ? with delta connection Example: annealing furnace, Rph = 22 Q; U = 400 V; P =

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1.6.4 Star Delta Connection of a Three-Phase Motor Star delta connection with contactors L1 L2 L3 PE Power part K1 network contactor K2 delta contactor K3 star contactor S1A OFF button star connection button delta connection button control part fuse power part fuse Motor connection with permanent wiring Star connection L1 L2 L3 U1 V1 W1

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Capacities, Efficiency Rates, Steam Table

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2.1 Boiler Output - Steam Production 1 t/h saturated steam ~ 0.65 MW boiler output* 1 kg oil produces approx. 16 kg steam

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mF or VF = fuel consumption in kg/h or m3/h ms    = steam output in kg/h h    = enthalpy of the steam in kJ/kg hfw    = enthalpy of the feedwater in kJ/kg LHV = lower heating value in kJ/kg or kJ/m3 = boiler efficiency rate in % If the steam output ms cannot be determined, it can be calculated from: mfw = feedwater flow rate in kg/h mbd = blow-down rate in kg/h

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